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2014年高考英语一轮复习知识点:主谓一致的用法及专题练习

 

文章发布时间:2015/5/28 1:36:22

 

 

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高中阶段能接不定式的常见动词:


     不定式作宾语的常见动词有:want(想要), like(喜欢), wish(希望), hate(憎恨,讨厌), prefer(宁愿), hope(希望), fail(失败), plan(计划), refuse(拒绝), ask(要求),continue(继续),manage(设法), try(尽力), offer(提供), start(开始), begin(开始), forget(忘记), remember(记得), promise(答应), mean(打算), pretend(假装), intend(想,打算), attempt(尝试,企图), decide(决定), learn(学会), desire(渴望,请求), agree(同意), care(关心,喜欢), choose(选择), determine(下决心), expect(期望), afford(负担得起,买得起)等。能接不定式做补语的常见的动词有:感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel等;使役动词make, let, have 等;还有一般的动词如advise(建议), allow(允许), ask, beg(乞求), command(命令,指挥), tell(告诉), invite(邀请), force(强迫), oblige(强迫), get(致使), help(帮助), wish, want, like, hate, prefer, intend, expect, encourage(鼓励), persuade(说服), permit(允许,许可), remind(使想起,提醒), request(请求,要求), order(命令), warn(警告,提醒), cause(引起)等。5. 高中阶段常见的不定式短语: 高中阶段常见的一些不定式短语可以作谓语,如:be able to do(能,会), be about to do(即将做……, used to do(过去常常……, be glad to do(乐意做……, would like to do(想要做……,be likely to do(很可能做……, go all out to do something全力以赴,be supposed to do应该等。高中阶段还有一些不定式短语可以作状语修饰整个句子,也可以称它们为插入语。如:to tell you the truth(说老实话),to be frank(坦率地说), to begin with(首先), to be brief(简言之), to make a long story short(长话短说), to be exact(精确地说), to say nothing of(姑且不说),to conclude(总而言之), to be sure(诚然、固然), to do him justice(说句对他公道的话),so to speak(可以这么说、打个譬喻说)等 。


一、主谓一致三原则
  主谓一致是指谓语动词与主语在人称和数上保持一致,主谓一致必须遵循三原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则,就近一致原则。
1. 语法一致:指主语是单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式,主语是复数形式,谓语也用复数形式。
  eg:Tom is a good student.    汤姆是个好学生。
  They often play football on the playground.   他们经常在操场上踢足球。
2. 意义一致:指主语形式上为单数,但意义为复数,因此谓语动词用复数形式;或主语形     式上为复数,但表示单数意义,这是谓语动词用单数形式。
  eg:My family are having lunch now. 我们一家人现在正吃午饭。
  Twenty dollars is too expensive for the book. 这本书20美元太贵了。
3. 就近一致:指谓语动词用单数形式还是用复数形式,取决于最靠近他的主语。例如:
  eg:Not only the teacher but also his students like playing football. 不仅老师喜欢踢足球,而且他的学生也喜欢踢足球。
  There is a pen and some books on the desk. 课桌上有一支钢笔和一些书。
二、 主谓一致常考题型
1. 单数名词(代词),不可数名词作主语时,谓语用单数形式,复数名词(代词)作主语,谓语用复数形式。
  eg:The desk is Tom’s. 这张桌子是汤姆的。
    Some water is in the bottle. 一些水在瓶子里。
    The students are playing football on the playground. 这些学生正在操场上踢足球。
2. many a+单数名词作主语,意义虽为“许多”,但谓语要用单数形式。
  eg:Many a student has been to Shanghai.  许多学生到过上海。
3. more than one+单数名词作主语,谓语用单数。
  eg:More than one student has ever been to Beijing.    不止一个学生曾经去过北京。
4. 表示时间,价格,重量,数目,长度,数学运算等的词或短语作主语时,这些通常作一个整体概念,谓语用单数形式。
  eg:Two months is a long holiday. 两个月是一个长假。
       Twenty pounds isn’t so heavy. 2 0磅并不太重。
       Ten miles isn’t a long distance. 1 0英里并不是一段很长的距离。
       Five minus four is one. 5减4等于1。
5. 主语是each/every+单数名词+and(each/every)+单数名词时,谓语动词用单数。
  eg:Each boy and each girl has got a seat.    每个男孩和女孩都有一个座位。
    Every man and every woman is at work.   每个男人和女人都在工作。
6. one and a half+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数形式。
  eg:One and a half hours is enough.   一个半小时足够了。
7. 动词不定式,动名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
  eg:To see is to believe    眼见为实。
    Doing eye exercises is good for your eyes. 做眼睛保健操对你的眼睛十分有益。
8. a/an+单数名词+or two 作主语,谓语动词用单数。 
  eg:A student or two has failed the exam.    一两个学生考试不及格。
9. 当主语部分(主语是单数时)含有with,together with,along with,as well as,besides, except,but,like等介词或介词短语时,谓语动词用单数形式;但“名词+as well as+名词”时,谓语动词一般应与第一个名词一致。  
  eg:Mike with his father has been to England.    迈克同他的父亲去过英格兰。
    Mike,like his brother,enjoys playing football    迈克像他的哥哥一样喜欢踢足球。
    The students as well as the teacher were present at the meeting.
10. 由and连接的两个单数名词作主语时,一般用复数形式,但and所连接的并列主语是同一个人,事物,或概念时,谓语动词用单数。这两种情况区分如下:a/the+单数名词+and+单数名词,指的是同一个人或物;a/the+单数名词+and+a/the+单数名词,指两个人或物。
eg:The writer and teacher is coming.   那位作家兼教师来了。(作家和教师指同一个人)
     The writer and the teacher are coming.   作家和老师来了。(作家和老师是两个人)
11. people,police等集体名词作主语,谓语动词用复数形式,family,class,group,team等集体名词作主语,若指一个整体时,谓语动词用单数形式,若指一个具体成员时,谓语动词复数形式。
  eg:People here are very friendly.    这儿的人很友好。
    His family isn’t large.    他家的人不多。
    My family all like watching TV.    我们一家人都喜欢看电视。
12. 不定代词somebody, someone, something, anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody,  no one,  nothing作主语,谓语动词用单数,
Eg:Is everyone here today.    今天大家到齐了吗?
   Something is wrong with him.   他有毛病。
   Nobody was in.   没有人在家。
13. each,  either,  neither,  another,  the other 作主语,谓语动词用单数。
eg:Each of them has an English dictionary.   他们每人都有一本英语词典。
     Neither answer is correct.    两个答案都不正确。
14. 以—s 结尾的名词本身不表示复数意义,谓语通常用单数形式,如news, maths, physics等,
  eg:No news is good news.    没有消息就是好消息。
       Maths is very popular in our class   在我们班数学很受欢迎。
15. 由both…and…连接两个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式;由or,  either…or…, neither…nor…,  not only…but also…,  not…but…,连接两个名词或代词作主语时,根据就近原则决定谓语动词形式。
  eg:Either my wife or I am going.
      Neither you, nor I, nor anyone else knows the answer.
      Not only you but also he is ready to leave.
如果either, each, neither作主语,则动词为单数形式。
  eg:Each of us has his likes and dislikes.
       Neither of the books is very interesting.
16. 如果主语是由“a series of, a kind of, a portion of+等+名词”构成时,动词一般用单数形式。
  eg:A series of pre-recorded taps has been prepared for language laboratory use.
但a variety of,  a number of +名词复数,动词要用复数形式; .而the number of +复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。
  eg:On exhibition there are a great variety of consumer goods.
      The number of the students is over 800
17.以here,there开头的句子,若主语在两个或两个以上,谓语动词通常与临近的主语一致。
  eg:There is a book and three pens on the desk.
     Here are some books and paper for you.
18. the+形容词表示一类人时,谓语动词用复数形式,表示抽象概念时,用单数形式.
  eg:The poor are very happy,but the rich are sad.
    The beautiful lives forever.   美是永存的。  
三.肯定与否定一致
下列形容词、副词、代词从肯定句变成否定句时须作相应的变化。
1、We've had some(money).→ We haven't had any(money).
2、I was talking to someone.→ I wasn't talking to anyone.
3、They sometimes visit us.→ They rarely (never, seldom)visit us.
4、He has arrived already. → He hasn't arrived yet.
5、Li is coming too.→ Li isn't coming either.
6、Both of us are going.→ Neither of us are going.
7、He likes both of them.→ He doesn't like either of them.
注意:so/neither+助动词+名词/代词结构中须用倒装语序。
  eg:My wife like classic music very much and so do I.
       She doesn't like jazz and neither do I.

主谓一致专项练习题
1. Either Jane or Steven _____ watching TV now.
  A. were       B. is       C. was         D. are
2. Two days _______enough for me to finish the work, I need a third day.
    A. isn't       B. is        C. aren't        D. are
3. —How many lessons do you usually haver a day?
  —Six lessons a day. And each of them _____45 minutes.
  A. last       B. lasts        C. have       D. are
4. Neither Li Ping nor I _______a basketball player.
  A. am       B. is       C. be        D. are
5. There ______ many new words in lesson one,It is very easy.
  A. is       B. aren't       C. isn't       D. are
6. The number of the students in our school ____1200.
  A. is        B. are       C. has        D. have
7. Maths _______ my favourite subject.
  A. be       B. is       C. am        D. are
8. The boy with the two dogs _____ when the earthquake rocked the city.
  A. were sleeping               B. is sleeping
  C. was sleeping                D. are sleeping
9. Everyone except Tom and John _____there when the meeting began.
  A. are       B. is        C. were        D. was
10. That place is not interesting at all, ____of us wants to go there.
  A. Neither         B. Both       C. All       D. Some
11. Nobody but Jane _____ the secret.
  A. know   B. knows   C. have know    D. is
12. —What’s on the plate? some eggs and cakes on it?
  —There _____some eggs and cakes on it.
  A. is   B. are   C. was   D. were
13. This pair of glasses ______mine.
  A. are   B. be   C. is    D. will be
14. Both Lily and Lucy ______ to the party yesterday.
  A. invited                     B. was invited
  C. had invited                 D. were invited
15. —Two months ______quite a long time.
  —Yes, I’m afraid that he will miss lots of his lessons.
  A. is    B. are    C. was   D. were
16. In the city the old _______.
  A. take good care of             B. are taken good care of
  C. is taken good care of         D. are been taken good care of
17. His family _____all very kind and friendly, His family ______a happy one.
  A. are,is       B. is,is       C. are,are        D. is,are
18. The singer and the dancer _____come to Beijing.
  A. has       B. have       C. are       D. is
19. The children in this class each _____new school bag.
  A. have       B. has      C. has got        D. are having
20. All but one _____ here just now.
  A. is       B. was      C. has been         D. were
21. If Bob's wife won't agree to go on holiday in winter,       .
    A.neither he will          B. neither won't he
    C. neither will he         D. he won't neither
22. I haven't finished my homework yet.      
    A. so has he     B. Neither he has    C. He has too   D. He hasn't either
23. —I'm going to visit the Lu Gou Bridge tomorrow.
  —    .
  A. I am so      B. So am I       C. So go I        D. So I go
24. You as well as he     to blame(责备) for the accident(交通事故).
    A. are        B. is        C. have         D. has
25. Neither my wife nor I myself     able to teach my daughter to sing English songs.
    A. has been         B. is         C. are         D. am
 
主谓一致练习题参考答案
(1) B    (2) A    (3) B    (4) A    (5) B    (6) A     (7) B  (8) C    (9) D    (10) A  (11) B  (12) B  (13) C  (14) D  (15) A    (16) B  (17) A  (18) B  (19) A  (20) D  (21) C  (22) D    (23) B  (24) A  (25) D

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